Axial coding

Axial coding is the disaggregation of core themes during qualitative data analysis. Axial coding in Grounded Theory is the process of relating codes (categories and concepts) to each other, via a combination of inductive and deductive thinking. The basic framework of generic relationships is understood, according to Strauss and Corbin (1990, 1998) who propose the use of a “coding paradigm”, to include categories related to (1) the phenomenon under study, (2) the conditions related to that phenomenon (context conditions, intervening -structural- conditions or causal conditions), (3) the actions and interactional strategies directed at managing or handling the phenomenon and (4) the consequences of the actions/interactions related to the phenomenon. As Kelle underlines, the implicit or explicit theoretical framework necessary to identify categories in empirical data is derived, in the procedures explicated by Strauss and Corbin (1990), from a “general model of action rooted in pragmatist and interactionist social theory” (Kelle, 2005, para. 16). This model or theoretical framework underlines the importance of “analysing and modelling action and interaction strategies of the actors” (para. 16). Axial coding is a cornerstone of Strauss and Corbin’s (1990, 1998) approach but is regarded by Charmaz (2006) as highly structured and optional.

Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis. London: Sage.
Gatrell, A.C. (2002) Geographies of Health: an Introduction, Oxford: Blackwell.
Kelle, Udo (2005). “Emergence” vs. “forcing” of empirical data? A crucial problem of “grounded theory” reconsidered [52 paragraphs]. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 6(2), Art. 27,
Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. M. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: grounded theory procedures and techniques. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. M. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.



This article is about the fungal genus. For the dance company, see Pilobolus (dance company).


Pilobolus spp.

Scientific classification






Tode (1784)

Type species

Pilobolus crystallinus


P. crystallinus
P. kleinii
P. longipes
P. sphaerosporus
P. umbonatus
P. roridus


Hydrogera F.H.Wigg. ex Kuntze (1891)
Pycnopodium Corda (1842)

Pilobolus is a genus of fungi that commonly grows on herbivore dung.
Life cycle[edit]
The life cycle of Pilobolus begins with a black sporangium that has been discharged onto a plant substrate such as grass. A herbivorous animal such as a horse then eats the substrate, unknowingly consuming the sporangium as well. The Pilobolus sporangium survives the passage through the gastrointestinal tract without germinating, and emerges with the excrement. Once outside its host, spores within the sporangium germinate and grow as a mycelium within the excrement, where it is a primary colonizer. Later, the fungus fruits to produce more spores.

Pilobolus sporangium

The asexual fruiting structure (the sporangiophore) of Pilobolus species is unique. It consists of a transparent stalk which rises above the excrement to end in a balloon-like subsporangial vesicle. On top of this, a single, black sporangium develops. The sporangiophore has the remarkable ability of orienting itself to point directly towards a light source. The subsporangial vesicle acts as a lens, focusing light via carotenoid pigments deposited near the base of the vesicle. The developing sporangiophore grows such that the maturing sporangium is aimed directly at the light.
When turgor pressure within the subsporangial vesicle builds to a sufficient level (often 7 ATM or greater), the sporangium is launched, and can travel anywhere from a couple of centimeters to a distance of 2 meters (6 ft). For a sporangiophore less than 1 cm tall, this involves acceleration from 0 to 20 km/h in only 2 µs, subjecting it to over 20 000 G, equivalent to a human being launched at 100 times the speed of sound (33 831 m/s at sea level[2] 121 791,6 km/h). The orientation of the stalk towards the early morning sun apparently guarantees that the sporangium is shot some distance from the excrement, enhancing the chances that it will attach to vegetation and be eaten by a new host.
Another adaptation of Pil

Roman Catholic Diocese of Cairns

Diocese of Cairns
Dioecesis Cairnensis



Far North region of Queensland

Ecclesiastical province


16°55′00″S 145°46′21″E / 16.91667°S 145.77250°E / -16.91667; 145.77250


377,000 km2 (146,000 sq mi)

- Total
- Catholics
(as of 2006)
59,912 ( 25.5%%)



Roman Catholic

Latin Rite

1877 as Vicariate Apostolic of Queensland;
10 May 1887 as Vicariate Apostolic of Cooktown;
8 July 1941 as Diocese of Cairns

St Monica’s Cathedral, Cairns

Current leadership


James Foley


Roman Catholic Diocese of Cairns

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Cairns is a Latin Rite suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Brisbane, erected initially as a vicariate apostolic in 1877 and elevated to a diocese in 1941, covering the far north region of Queensland, Australia.
St Monica’s Cathedral is the seat of the Catholic Bishop of Cairns, currently James Foley.


1 History
2 Ordinaries
3 Parishes
4 See also
5 References
6 External links

Following the discovery of gold near Cooktown in 1872 and the establishment and growth of sugar production during the 1870s, the Bishop of Brisbane, James Quinn, visited Cooktown in 1874. The first church was opened a year later.[1] Quinn had earlier been petitioning the Roman Curia to create a vicariate in north Queensland to minister to Catholics in the region and to evangelise the Aborigines, with the Vicariate Apostolic of Queensland officially created in 1877. An initial attempt to install Italian priests from the Pontifical Seminary of the Apostles Saints Peter and Paul of Rome was a failure; mainly due to cultural and language issues with both the indigenous and predominately Irish lay population.[1] Quinn, from Ireland, appointed one of his fellow countryman, John Cani as the first Pro-Vicar who served up until Quinn’s death in 1882 when Cani returned to Brisbane before being appointed as the first Bishop of Rockhampton. A short term under Monsignor Paul Fortini followed, with clashes between laity and priests before the parish of Herberton was placed interdict in 1883; meaning that sacraments could not be celebrated. Fortini was recalled to Rome.[1]
A stable period followed under the pastoral care of the Augustinians. The number of paris

List of mayors of Windhoek

The city of Windhoek, capital of Namibia, was officially founded on 18 October 1890 by Curt von François, an Imperial German colonial official in the Schutztruppe,[1] to serve as capital of German South-West Africa. Since then, the city had 49 different mayors, the first of them starting to serve in 1909.[2]


1 List of mayors

1.1 German colonial administration (1894–1915)
1.2 South African mandate (1920–66)
1.3 South African occupation (1966–89)
1.4 Independent Namibia (1990–present)

2 References

2.1 Notes
2.2 Literature
2.3 External links

List of mayors[edit]
This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
German colonial administration (1894–1915)[edit]

1909–10: Dr Fritsche, first mayor of Windhoek[2]
1910–11: Gustav Voigts[2]
1911–16: Peter Müller, born 1873, member of the Schutztruppe, later businessman[3]

South African mandate (1920–66)[edit]

19??–18: Dr Kohler[4]
1920–22: Peter Müller[3]
1927–28: Joseph Wood, born 17 February 1876 in Birmingham, England, a Wesleyan Church minister.[5]
1929–38:John Meinert, born 9 December 1886 in Hamburg, Germany. Businessman and founder of John Meinert Printing Ltd.[2][3]
19??–??: Edgar Sander, born 4 March 1895 in Leipzig, Germany, entered Namibia in 1923. Sander farmed with Karakul skins and was a member of the Legislative Assembly of South-West Africa.[6]
19??–??: Abraham Bernard May, medical doctor and district surgeon[3]
1941–46: Marie Elizabeth May Bell,[7] first female mayor of Windhoek[2]
1950s: Simon Frank, born 11 October 1913 in Robertson, South Africa. Advocate Frank was mayor of Newcastle in KwaZulu-Natal before taking the post in Windhoek.[8]
1954–55: Willem Hendrik Immelmann, born 11 February 1904 in Sutherland, South Africa, was a manager at Windhoek Universal Motors.[9]
1956–57: Hermanus Johannes Steyn, born in 1890 in Ermelo, South Africa. Steyn was an ophthalmologist and the leader of the National Party of South-West Africa.[6]
1957–61: Jaap Snyman (Jacobus van Deventer Snyman), businessman, born 7 February 1919 in Zeerust, South Africa. Snyman was the owner of the car that was set on fire during the Old Location Uprising in December 1959, prompting the police to open fire at the protesters and killing 11 people.[6]
1961–63: Stefanus Johannes Spies, born 26 June 1922 in Oudtshoorn, South Africa. He was a businessman and entered Namibia in 1945.[6]
1963–65: Jack Levinson[2]
1965-?: Sam Davis[10]

South African occupation (



Ortsteil of Rödinghausen

Coat of arms


Location of Schwenningdorf within Rödinghausen 

Coordinates: 52°14′51″N 8°29′34″E / 52.24750°N 8.49278°E / 52.24750; 8.49278Coordinates: 52°14′51″N 8°29′34″E / 52.24750°N 8.49278°E / 52.24750; 8.49278


North Rhine-Westphalia

Admin. region




 • Total
7.449 km2 (2.876 sq mi)

Population ({{{Stand}}})

 • Total

 • Density
320/km2 (820/sq mi)

Time zone

Postal codes

Dialling codes

Schwenningdorf is a village in the parish of Rödinghausen ion the northeastern part of the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Until 1968 Schwenningdorf was an independent parish in the Amt of Rödinghausen. The village was first mentioned in the records in 1088.

Relief map of Rödinghausen

The village of Schwenningdorf lies to the north of Rödinghausen on the slopes of the Wiehen Hills. Its highest elevation is the Maschberg at 190 m above sea level (NN). The lowest point is the valley of the Große Aue at around 80 m above NN. Schwenningdorf has about 2,356 inhabitants and an area of 7.449 square kilometres (1,841 acres) (316 people per km²). The valley of the Aue and its neighbouring valleys Wehmerhorster Wiesental and the region of the Schierenbeke are nature reserves.

St John’s

The following overview shows the population figures for Schwenningdorf based on the respective parish area until its incorporation into the parish of Rödinghausen on 1 January 1969. Changes in the parish boundary occurred due to the incorporation of the settlements in the Bieren area on 4 March 1898 (1895: 10 inhabitants) and 1 April 1932 (1925: 2 inhabitants). The figures given are census returns[1][2] From 1871 and for 1946 the returns were based on the population present in the village and from 1925 on the actual residential population. Before 1871 the censuses were not based on standard criteria.


1818 (31 Dec)

1834 (31 Dec)

1837 (31 Dec)

1843 (31 Dec)

1849 (3 Dec)

1852 (3 Dec)


1858 (3 Dec)

1867 (3 Dec)

Norberto Rivera Carrera

This biography of a living person needs additional citations for verification. Please help by adding reliable sources. Contentious material about living persons that is unsourced or poorly sourced must be removed immediately, especially if potentially libelous or harmful. (August 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

His Eminence
Norberto Rivera Carrera

Cardinal, Archbishop of Mexico
Primate of Mexico


13 June 1995

Ernesto Corripio y Ahumada

Other posts
Cardinal-Priest of S. Francesco d’Assisi a Ripa Grande
Member of Council for the Economy


3 July 1966
by Pope Paul VI

21 December 1985
by Antonio López Aviña

Created Cardinal
21 February 1998


Personal details

(1942-06-04) 4 June 1942 (age 74)
La Purísima, Durango, Mexico


Roman Catholic

Previous post

Roman Catholic Bishop of Tehuacán (1985–1995)

Alma mater
Pontifical Gregorian University

Lumen Gentium

Coat of arms

Styles of
Norberto Rivera Carrera

Reference style
His Eminence

Spoken style
Your Eminence

Informal style


Ordination history of Norberto Rivera Carrera

Episcopal consecration

Principal consecrator
Antonio López Aviña (Durango)

Date of consecration
December 21, 1985

Bishops consecrated by Norberto Rivera Carrera as principal consecrator

José de Jesús Martínez Zepeda
April 12, 1997

Marcelino Hernández Rodríguez
February 5, 1998

Felipe Tejeda García
March 4, 2000

José Luis Fletes Santana
March 4, 2000

Guillermo Rodrigo Teodoro Ortiz Mondragón
March 4, 2000

Francisco Clavel Gil
June 27, 2001

Norberto Rivera Carrera (born June 4, 1942) is a Mexican Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He is the Archbishop of Mexico City and the Primate Archbishop of Mexico He was elevated to the cardinalate in 1998.


1 Early life and ministry
2 Episcopal career and cardinalate
3 Sexual child abuse cover-up accusation
4 References
5 External links

Early life and ministry[edit]
Norberto Rivera Carrera was born in La Purísima, a small town in Tepehuanes Municipality, to Ramón Rivera Cháidez and Soledad Carrera; he has a sister who is a nun. His father immigrated to and worked in the United States in order to support the family. Rivera entered the seminary of Durango in 1955. He later went to Rome

Takanabe, Miyazaki



Location of Takanabe in Miyazaki Prefecture


Location in Japan

Coordinates: 32°07′50″N 131°30′37″E / 32.13056°N 131.51028°E / 32.13056; 131.51028Coordinates: 32°07′50″N 131°30′37″E / 32.13056°N 131.51028°E / 32.13056; 131.51028



Miyazaki Prefecture



 • Total
43.92 km2 (16.96 sq mi)

Population (2003)

 • Total

 • Density
510/km2 (1,300/sq mi)

Time zone
Japan Standard Time (UTC+9)


Takanabe (高鍋町, Takanabe-chō?) is a town located in Koyu District, Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan.
In 2003, the town had an estimated population of 22,613 and a density of 514.87 persons per km². The total area is 43.92 km².
External links[edit]

Media related to Takanabe, Miyazaki at Wikimedia Commons
Takanabe official website (Japanese)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities
VIAF: 255822746
NDL: 00327419

This Miyazaki Prefecture location article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.



Christian F. Schilt

Christian Frank Schilt

General Christian F. Schilt, Medal of Honor recipient

(1895-03-19)March 19, 1895
Richland County, Illinois

January 8, 1987(1987-01-08) (aged 91)
Norfolk, Virginia

Place of burial
Arlington National Cemetery

 United States of America

United States Marine Corps

Years of service


Commands held
MCAS Cherry Point
1st Marine Aircraft Wing
Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps, Aviation

World War I
Occupation of Haiti
Occupation of Nicaragua
World War II
Korean War

Medal of Honor
Distinguished Service Medal
Legion of Merit
Distinguished Flying Cross (2)
Bronze Star

Sgt. Benjamin Franklin Belcher, Capt. Jame E. Davis, Lt. Christian Frank Schilt, and Sgt. Hubert H. Dogant on February 23, 1927

Christian Frank Schilt (March 19, 1895 – January 8, 1987) was one of the first Marine Corps aviators and a recipient of the United States highest military decoration, the Medal of Honor. He received the Medal for using his biplane to evacuate wounded Marines under fire in Nicaragua.
In addition to his actions in Nicaragua he saw action in World War I, the Haitian and Nicaraguan campaigns, World War II and the Korean War. He retired after nearly 40 years of active service and was promoted to the rank of four-star general at retirement.


1 Early life and education
2 Military career

2.1 Military awards and decorations
2.2 Medal of Honor citation
2.3 Distinguished Service Medal citation

3 See also
4 Notes
5 References
6 External links

Early life and education[edit]
Christian Frank Schilt was born March 19, 1895, in Richland County, Illinois, and after attending Rose Polytechnic Institute in Terre Haute, Indiana, he enlisted in the Marine Corps June 23, 1917.
Military career[edit]
As an enlisted man he served at Ponta Delgada, in the Azores, with the 1st Marine Aeronautical Company, a seaplane squadron assigned to anti-submarine patrol. This was the first organized American air unit of any service to go overseas during World War I.
Returning to the United States as a corporal, he entered flight training at the Marine Flying Field, Miami, Florida. He was designated an aviator June 5, 1919, and commissioned a second lieutenant five days later. That October, he began his first tour of expeditionary duty as a member of Squadron “D,” Marine Air Forces, 2nd Provisional Brigade, in Santo Domingo. He returned to the


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Pomeranian Lakeland

53°17′N 14°54′E / 53.283°N 14.900°E / 53.283; 14.900Coordinates: 53°17′N 14°54′E / 53.283°N 14.900°E / 53.283; 14.900

Basin countries

Max. length
16.2 km

Max. width
3.2 km

Surface area
35 km²

Max. depth
43.8 m

Stargard Szczeciński

Miedwie (Polish: Jezioro Miedwie, German: Madüsee) is a lake in the Pomeranian Lakeland region of West Pomeranian Voivodship, in northwestern Poland.
The lake is 35 km² in surface area. It is 16.2 km long and 3.2 km wide. Its maximum depth is 43.8 m.
The lake has a 150m long pier.
Miedwie lake and its surrounding area is a Natura 2000 EU Special Protection Area.
See also[edit]

Natura 2000 in Poland
Special Protection Areas in Poland


This West Pomeranian Voivodeship location article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.